Attitudes towards varied inclusive language use in Spanish on Twitter

Authors

  • Katie Slemp York University

Keywords:

language and gender, gender-inclusive language, language reform, language attitudes

Abstract

Research into gender-inclusive language in Spanish has demonstrated that inclusive language generally appears in four forms: doublets, -@, -x, and -e. There is little research on language attitudes towards the use of gender-inclusive language in Spanish, although studies exist for other languages. The present study compiled a corpus of published tweets that contained the markers -@, -x, and -e. Based on this data, hypothetical tweets were constructed that fell into four different categories, corresponding to the author of the tweet: business, personal, academic, and political. These hypothetical tweets were built into an attitudes survey that was distributed on Twitter. Findings indicate that language attitudes for each type of inclusive marker and category of tweet are generally positive. Statistical analysis indicates a significant relationship between gender identity and attitudes towards the use of inclusive language in the political category.

References

Alarcón, I. (2011). Spanish gender agreement under complete and incomplete acquisition: Early and late bilinguals’ linguistic behavior within the noun phrase. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14(3), 332-350. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728910000222

Arce, W. M. (2015). Reel negotiations: Exploring the relationship between film, religion, and sexuality in the Latino community (Publication No. 10115574) [Doctoral dissertation, Graduate Theological Union]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Bigler, R.S. & Leaper, C. (2015). Gendered language: Psychological principles, evolving practices, and inclusive policies. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2(1), 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732215600452

Blaubergs, M. S. (1980). An analysis of classic arguments against changing sexist language. Women’s Studies International Quarterly 3(2-3), 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-0685(80)92071-0

Carney, D. R., Jost, J. T., Samuel, D., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2008). The secret lives of liberals and conservatives: personality profiles, interaction styles, and the things they leave behind. Political Psychology 29(6), 807–840. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00668.x

Cralley, E. L., & Ruscher, J. B. (2005). Lady, girl, female, or woman: Sexism and cognitive busyness predict use of gender-biased nouns. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 24(3), 300–314. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X05278391

de Onís, M. C. (2017). What is an “x”? An exchange about the politics of “Latinx.” Chiricú Journal: Latina/o Literatures, Arts, and Cultures 1(2), 78–91. https://www.muse.jhu.edu/article/664597

DeGuzmán, M. (2017). Latinx: ¡Estamos aquí!, or being “Latinx” at UNC-Chapel Hill. Cultural Dynamics 29(3), 214–230. https://doi.org/10.1177/0921374017727852

Eckert, P. & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and gender. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791147

Ehrlich, S. & King, R. (1992). Gender-based language reform and the social construction of meaning. Discourse & Society 3(2): 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003002002

Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203838020

Fought, C. (2013). Ethnicity. In J.K. Chambers & N. Schilling (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 16j–1h. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598

Guidotti-Hernández, N. (2017). Affective communities and millennial desires: Latinx, or why my computer won’t recognize Latina/o. Cultural Dynamics 29(3), 141–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/0921374017727853

Haddock-Lazala, C. M. (2016). Life and breasts at the borderlands: The breast reconstruction decision-making experiences of Dominican and Puerto Rican Latinxs. (Publication No. 10163151) [Doctoral dissertation, New School University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Jacobson, M. B. & Insko, W. R. (1985). Use of nonsexist pronouns as a function of one's feminist orientation. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 13(1-2), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00287456

Jost, J. T., and Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: Consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88(3), 498–509. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.498

Kirkham, S. & Moore, E. (2013). Adolescence. The handbook of language variation and change, 399p-3100j. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598

Loporcaro, M. (2018). Grammatical gender in Romance. Gender from Latin to Romance. Oxford University Press, 33-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199656547.001.0001

Milian, C. (2017). Extremely Latin, XOXO: Notes on Latinx. Cultural Dynamics 29(3),121–140. https://doi.org/10.1177/0921374017727850

Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. (1988). Recomendaciones para el uso no sexista de la lengua. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

Padilla, Y. (2016). What does “Latinx” mean? A look at the term that’s challenging gender norms. Complex. Retrieved from http://www.complex.com/life/2016/04/latinx.

Patterson, H. (2017). A sociolinguistic survey of “Latinx.” (Publication No. 14) [Honors thesis, University of North Georgia]. https://digitalcommons.northgeorgia.edu/honors_theses/14

Pauwels, A. (2008). Linguistic sexism and feminist linguistic activism. In J. Holmes and M. Meyerhoff (Eds.), The handbook of language and gender. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756942

Prewitt-Freilino, J., Caswell, A., & Laakso, E. (2012). The gendering of language: A comparison of gender equality in countries with gendered, natural gender, and genderless languages. Sex Roles 66(4), 268–281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-0083-5

Queen, Robin. (2013). Gender, sex, sexuality, and sexual identities. In J.K. Chambers & N. Schilling (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 13-16i. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598

R Core Team. (2018). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. [Computer software]. Retrieved from https://cran.r-project.org/.

Ramírez Vélez, J. M. (2009). 10 recomendaciones para el uso no sexista del lenguaje. Conapred.

Real Academia Española. (2018). Libro de estilo de la lengua española según la norma panhispánica. Espasa.

Rubin, D., Greene, K., & Schneider, D. (1994). Adopting gender-inclusive language reforms. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 13(2), 91-114. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X94132001

Salinas, C. & Lozano, A. (2019). Mapping and recontextualizing the evolution of the term Latinx: An environmental scanning in higher education. Journal of Latinos and Education 18(4), 302-315. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348431.2017.1390464

Sarlo, B. & Kalinowski, S. (2019). La lengua en disputa: Un debate sobre el lenguaje inclusivo. Ediciones Godot.

Sarrasin, O., Gabriel, U., & Gygax, P. (2012). Sexism and attitudes toward gender-neutral language: The case of English, French, and German. Swiss Journal of Psychology 71(3), 113–124. https://doi.org/10.1024/1421-0185/a000078

Scharrón-Del Río, M. R. & Aja, A. A. (2020). Latinx: Inclusive language as liberation praxis. Journal of Latinx Psychology 8(1), 7–20. https://doi.org/10.1037/lat0000140

Sczesny, S., Formanowicz, M., & Moser, F. (2016). Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination? Frontiers in Psychology 7(25). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00025

Sczesny, S., Moser, F., & Wood, W. (2015). Beyond sexist beliefs: How do people decide to use gender-inclusive language? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41(7), 943–954. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167215585727

Slemp, K. (2020). Latino, Latina, Latin@, Latine, and Latinx: Gender Inclusive Oral Expression in Spanish. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. 7297. https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/7297

Slemp, K., Díaz, Y., & Heap, D. (2019). Todxs lxs youtuberxs: pronunciaciones del lenguaje inclusivo por hispanohablantes en línea. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Association of Hispanists, Vancouver, BC.

Stout, J. G., & Dasgupta, N. (2011). When he doesn’t mean you: Gender-exclusive language as ostracism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37(6), 757–769. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167211406434

Swim, J., Mallett, R., & Stangor, C. (2004). Understanding subtle sexism: Detection and use of sexist language. Sex Roles 51, 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000037757.73192.06

The jamovi project (2019). jamovi. (Version 1.1) [Computer Software]. Retrieved from https://www.jamovi.org.

Vidal-Ortíz, S. & Martínez, J. (2018). Latinx thoughts: Latinidad with an X. Latino Studies 16(3), 384–395. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41276-018-0137-8

Zentella, A.C. (2017). “Limpia, fija y da esplendor”: Challenging the symbolic violence of the Royal Spanish Academy. Chiricú Journal: Latina/o Literatures, Arts, and Cultures 1(2), 21–42. https://doi.org/10.2979/chiricu.1.2.04

https://zeoob.com/generate-twitter-tweet/

Downloads

Published

2021-09-13

How to Cite

Slemp, K. (2021). Attitudes towards varied inclusive language use in Spanish on Twitter. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics and Linguistics at York, 1, 60–74. Retrieved from https://wally.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/default/article/view/6

Issue

Section

Articles